Comunità energetiche rinnovabili
Thanks to the conversion of the Decreto Milleproroghe 162/2019 have also been introduced in our country "Renewable energy communities" provided for by the European Directive RED II (2018/2001 / EU).
But what is an energy community?
This term means aassociation between citizens, businesses, local public administrations or small and medium-sized enterprises that decide to join forces to equip themselves with one or more shared facilities for the production and self-consumption of energy from renewable sources.
In fact, this is an important step towards an energy scenario based on distributed generation, which will favor the development of zero kilometer energy and of smart grids (or smart grid). In Italy it was in fact already possible for individual citizens or groups of companies to join together to finance the installation of a shared system powered by renewable sources, but it was not expected that this system could supply energy to multiple users.
Energy communities have numerous positive impacts on the people, entities and communities involved:
- Environmental benefits, on the one hand avoiding the production of energy from fossil sources, and on the other hand avoiding the dissipation of energy in grid losses.
- Economic benefits, thanks to the incentive mechanisms provided for by law to promote the energy transition, which can be combined with other contributions such as the Home Bonus and the 110% Superbonus.
- Social benefits, given by the sharing of financial incentives and economic profits with the energy community as well as the environmental benefits (reduction of pollutants and climate-altering agents) for the entire area in which the community is located.
Energy communities also allow for economic advantages because they are incentivized by the state for a duration of 20 years. How?
Through the GSE, the State recognizes 110 euros as an incentive for each megawatt hour exchanged and another 10 euros are awarded by the Arera as a kind of reimbursement for non-use of the network. To these 120 euros must be added 50 euros saved for the failure to purchase energy, since it is self-produced. The result is that members of the energy communities save 170 euros every MWh. The investment, which consists mainly of the production plant, pays for itself in 8-10 years.
Energy communities in Italy
Secondo il rapporto Comunità rinnovabili 2021 di Legambiente, in Italy they are active or in the process of being activated on the basis of current legislation 20 renewable energy communities, distributed a little throughout the national territory, while another 7 are planned. The self-production plants are mostly of inclusive size between 20 and 60 kW, but with significant exceptions.